Friday , May , 02 , 2003 C.Y. Ellis

Basketball rules – Violations & Penalties


DEFINITION EXPANDED. The relationship between a violation and a foul in basketball is roughly comparable to that of a parking violation to a speeding ticket. The penalty for a violation is less severe. Also, a player may commit any number of violations-but only five fouls, including personal, unsporting and contact technical fouls-without his or her license to continue to play in the game being revoked.
Violations fall into three general classes:


Floor violations, for which the penalty awards the ball to opponents out of bounds.
Free-throw violations, which may either cancel the throw or award a substitute throw.
Violation of opponents’ basket (goaltending), which awards one, two or three points to opponents.
FLOOR VIOLATIONS. The long list of errors that turn the ball over to the opposition out of bounds should give you some idea of the skill required in floor play-an often underrated phase of the game. It is a floor violation to:



Floor violations, for which the penalty awards the ball to opponents out of bounds.
Free-throw violations, which may either cancel the throw or award a substitute throw.
Violation of opponents’ basket (goaltending), which awards one, two or three points to opponents.
FLOOR VIOLATIONS. The long list of errors that turn the ball over to the opposition out of bounds should give you some idea of the skill required in floor play-an often underrated phase of the game. It is a floor violation to:


Cause the ball to go out of bounds or fail to observe the throw-in provisions. A player who touches a ball that has been thrown in while that player is out of bounds causes a violation.
Walk (travel) with the ball; or kick it, except accidentally, or strike the ball with the fist.
Cause the ball to enter the basket from below.
Dribble a second time (double dribble) while the ball is in one’ s continuous possession (see definition of dribble, Rule 4).
Be the first to touch a ball that one’ s team has caused to go from frontcourt to back court or, for men, fail to advance the ball from backcourt to frontcourt within 10 seconds.
Excessively swing arm(s) or elbow(s), even without contact.
Linger three seconds in one’ s free-throw lane.
Fail to observe jump-ball provisions of Rule 6-4.
Be guilty of basket interference at one’ s own basket.
Be closely guarded. A closely guarded violation occurs when a team in its front court (men) or anywhere on the court (women) holds the ball for five seconds in an area enclosed by screening teammates (for men, this also applies while a player is dribbling).
Fail to attempt a field goal, once team control has been established, before the shot-clock horn sounds. If the shot-clock horn sounds after the ball is released, the attempt must hit the rim or enter the basket or it is a violation.
FREE-THROW VIOLATIONS. A free-throw violation by the thrower or the thrower’s teammates cancels the goal, if successful; and (unless another free throw is to follow) the ball is awarded to opponents out of bounds at the spot nearest to where the violation occurred. In this case, it would be the end line.


Such violations include:



Attempting the throw from anywhere except within the free-throw semicircle and behind the free-throw line.
Failure to throw within 10 seconds, or failure of the ball to enter the basket or touch the basket ring.
Occupancy of lane space nearest the basket by the thrower’ s teammate.
The free thrower having a foot on or above the free-throw line or any lane boundary until the ball has touched the ring or backboard.
Purposely faking a free-throw attempt or faking a violation (both teams).
If opponents commit violation (d) above or if they disconcert the free thrower by entering or leaving a lane space during the attempt, a substitute throw is awarded if the attempt is unsuccessful. If both teams commit a free-throw violation, the whole thing is called off and play is resumed by a throw-in.
Players not occupying a marked lane space may not enter the lane or other lane boundaries until the ball touches the ring or backboard or until the free throw ends.


GOALTENDING. This violation (see Definitions) at the opponent’ s basket awards two or three points on a field-goal attempt. On a free-throw attempt, one point is awarded and a technical foul is assessed.