Basketball rules - Fouls & Penalties
THE DEADLIEST SIN. Basketball' s most severe rules infractions are labeled fouls, of which there are two distinctly different types: (a) the personal foul, involving illegal player contact with an opponent, and (b) the less frequent technical foul, which is an infraction of the game' s administrative rules by a non-player or a player without player contact on a live ball or with player contact on a dead ball. The best example of a technical foul involving nonplayers in recent years has been the two-shot penalty leveled against coaches displaying improper bench decorum.
Ah, but here' s the rub-when two players collide, whose fault is it? So the official rules book attempts to explain the philosophy of advantage/disadvantage.
PERSONAL-FOUL PENALTIES. The wrongdoer is charged with a foul in the scorebook, and for the fifth foul, including personal, unsporting and contact technical fouls, the player is disqualified for the remainder of the game. Also, the offended player is awarded one or more free throws as follows:
For the player, however, there are even more opportunities for a technical foul. Some of the things a player must not do are:
Wear an illegal number or change jersey number during the game without reporting the change to the scorers, or, for men, dunk the ball during game practice or warm-up (player may be disqualified).
TECHNICAL-FOUL PENALTY. With the exception of double technical fouls, two free throws are awarded for all technical fouls plus possession of the ball to the offended team at either end of the division line.
If a technical foul is committed by bench personnel, team attendants or followers, the offended team shall be awarded two free throws; and the foul shall be assessed to the head coach or co-head coaches.
For any flagrant technical or flagrant personal foul committed by a coach, squad member, team attendant or follower, two free throws shall be awarded; and the offender shall go to the team' s locker room until the game ends. A double flagrant technical foul results in no free throws being awarded and automatic ejection of both offenders.
Any squad member, coach or team personnel who participates in a fight shall be assessed the penalty for a flagrant foul. The first time that individual participates in a fight during the season; the individual will be suspended from participating in the team' s next game. If the same individual participates in a second fight, that individual will be suspended for the remainder of the season, including tournament competition. Any player, coach or team personnel who participates in a fight during his or her team' s final game of the season will be suspended from playing in the team' s next regular-season game for which that individual would be eligible. Any player, coach or team personnel under suspension for fighting may not sit on the team bench.
The third technical foul charged to a coach, squad member or any bench personnel shall be considered a flagrant technical foul.
The second technical foul for unsporting conduct that is charged directly to a coach, squad member or any bench personnel shall be considered a flagrant technical foul, which leads to ejection.
The referee may forfeit the game if any individual fails to comply with any part of these penalties.